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Bioscopes:
Erik (Homberger) Erikson
 
Researched and written by:  Shayla R. K. Porter
 
I attest that the following biography is a product of my own original work..

Bioscope
 
           Erik Erikson is considered to be the “Father of Psychosocial Development.” He was born on June 15, 1902 in Frankfurt, Germany. His biological father left before he was born and his mother remarried when Erikson was three years old. Up until Erikson became an American citizen in 1933, he went by the name of Erik Homberger (which was not his biological father's name). The reason why he changed his name is unknown, but was likely due to him never knowing the true identity of his biological father.
            Erikson suffered from his own identity crisis which led to his development of “identity crisis concept” which states that an identity crisis is a necessary stage in development that accompanies the growth of an appropriate identity. Erik Erikson was analyzed by Anna Freud, founder of child psychoanalysis and daughter of Sigmund Freud, in 1927. This influenced his interest in society and culture on the development of children.  
            Erikson extended Sigmund Freud’s developmental theory. He established that personality development continues throughout one’s life span, Freud claimed that personality is determined by the age of five. Erikson generated eight stages of development: Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. Role Confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, and Integrity vs. Despair. These eight stages abide by the epigenetic principle which states that a person’s development is predetermined.  Erikson’s theory maintains that if a stage is successfully overcome, a virtue or “psychosocial strength” is attained that will assist in the management of succeeding stages.   
            Erikson’s first book Childhood and Society was published in 1950. He also had many others including Identity: Youth and Crisis (1968) and Youth: Change and Challenge (1963).

    



 

References
 


Martin, C. (1999). Erik Erikson. Psyche Matters, 1-3.
Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. (2004). A history of modern psychology (8th ed.). Las Vegas,
          NV: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Sharkey, W. (1997). Erik Erikson. Retrieved March 25, 2005, from
          http://www.muskingum.edu/`psych/psycweb/history/erikson.htm.

 

 

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