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Jean Piaget
 
Piaget
Researched and written by:  Lisa Lynn Corrigan
 
I attest that the following biography is a product of my own origional work. 

Biography
 

Childhood/Family Life

          Jean Piaget was born in Neuchatel, Switzerland on August 9, 1895. His parents were Arthur Piaget and Rebecca Jackson and he was their eldest child. His father was an English professor. He took an avid interest in nature when he was young, and collected many things such as shells. At age 11, he published his first paper in psychology on his observations of the albino sparrow. At a very young age he also published several papers on mollusks, which were his favorite subject to study. Several of these papers were mistaken for papers written by an adult. Piaget was encouraged by his mother to attend religious school but he found religion and philosophy to be very childish. He then became interested in and studied the science of psychology. (Boeree, 2002)

Adult Life

          After he graduated from high school, Piaget went to the University of Neuchatel to study psychology. He became sickly because he worked and studied harder than he should have. Because of this sickness, he had to take a year off from school. In 1918 he received his doctorate in psychology and the taught psychology and philosophy in Paris. Piaget got married in 1923 to Valentine Chatenay, one of his coworkers. They had a daughter in 1925, a second in 1927, and a son in 1931. Their children became a focus of study for Piaget and Chatenay. (A Short Biography of Jean Piaget, 2002)

·    1923 – Married Valentine Chatenay, one of his coworkers.

·    1925 – First daughter was born, Jacqueline.

·    1927 – Second daughter was born, Lucienne.

·    1931 – Son was born, Laurent.

·    September 16, 1980 – Died in Geneva. (A Short Biography of Jean Piaget, 2002)


Professional Accomplishments:

·    1919 – After receiving his doctorate in science from Neuchatel, he went on to teach psychology and philosophy at the Sorbonne in Paris and he also did research on intelligence testing with Simon.

·    1921 – His first article on intelligence was published in the Journal de Psychologie, and he also taught at the Institut J.J. Rousseau in Geneva.

·    1929 – Worked as the director of the Bureau International Office de l’Education

·    1940 – Became chair of the Experimental Psychology department, director of the psychology laboratory, and president of the Swiss Society of Psychology.

·    1952 – Became a professor at the Sorbonne.

·    1955 – Created the International Center for Genetic Epistemology

·    1956 – Created the school of Social Sciences at the University of Geneva.

·    1969- Became the first European psychologist to receive the APA’s Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award. (A Short Biography of Jean Piaget, 2002)


Piaget’s contributions to Psychology:

          Piaget made many contributions to psychology. He was very interested in thought and thinking processes. This interest caused him to study what he called “genetic epistemology.” This is the study of the development of knowledge. He was most interested in children and how their thinking changes and how they learn as they grow older. The word he used for learning was adaptation. As he studied children, Piaget realized that there were stages that the children went through in the process of learning. This became Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory, which was the most important and influential of his contributions. (Boeree, 2002)

          His theory on cognitive development inspired a lot more research on children to be done. He said that children actively gain knowledge and that their cognitive development takes place in a series of 4 stages. (Berk, 1999)

·    Stage 1 – Sensorimotor – takes place from birth to 2 years. Infants use their eyes, ears, and hands to figure out the world around them.  This stage involves both skills as simple as reflexes and complex sensorimotor skills. The child uses senses and motor skills to help them to learn and understand the world. They are also able to use mental representation, which means that they are able to picture an object in their mind even after the object has been taken out of their line of sight. (Berk, 1999)

·    Stage 2 – Preoperational – takes place from age 2-7 years. Children use symbols to explain things. Language and make-believe take place. The child is able to use symbols to represent things. Words and pictures can be used to represent real objects that are not in their line of sight. In this stage, the child also is able to understand the differences between past, present, and future. However, the child is still very egocentric and is unable to see things from another person’s point of view. (Berk, 1999)

·    Stage 3 – Concrete Operational – takes place from age 7-11 years. Children develop logical reasoning. They can organize and categorize things but still are not capable of abstract thinking. The child is able to manipulate symbols in order to solve problems. They begin to understand the idea of conservation, which means that a liquid remains the same volume even if it is poured into a different size container. However, the child’s thinking is still very concrete and they are unable to think in abstract terms in order to understand complex problems. (Berk, 1999)

·    Stage 4 – Formal Operational – takes place from age 11 on. Abstract thinking begins in this stage. Adolescents are capable of things such as advanced mathematics. They begin to be able to apply the new logic abilities learned in the previous stage to more concrete problems and situations. They become capable of abstract reasoning and hypothetical thinking. They are also able to evaluate problems very systematically in order to solve the problem in the best way possible. They are also capable of developing a experiment in order to test out hypotheses. The formal operational stage is sometimes not reached by every child. Not ever culture sees the importance of abstract reasoning. (Berk, 1999)

References
 
A Short Biography of Jean Piaget. Retrieved on 4/15/02 from http://www.piaget.org/biography/biog.html

Berk, Laura E. (1999.) Infants and Children – Prenatal through Middle Childhood (3rd ed.) Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon. 20-22

Boeree, George. Jean Piaget. Retrieved on 4/15/02 from http://www.crystalinks.com/piaget.html

 

 

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