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Who Am I?

     Each section contains information about an important person in psychology.  Can you guess who it is?  Click on the answer to find out if you are correct. 
 
#1: I was born in 1773 in Montrose, Scotland. I intended to become a minister and was for awhile, until I became quite irritated and very discouraged. No one seemed to understand my sermons! That’s why I left the Church and took up writing. I wrote about many topics and published throughout my life. Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind was my most important contribution to Psychology and I published this in 1829. I strongly believed that the mind is a machine! Therefore, humans had no free will, could not act spontaneously, and basically were just a passive being, which relied on external forces to act upon us. I agreed with John Locke that the mind was like a blank slate at birth. That’s why when my son was born I became determined to make him very intelligent at a very young age. My offspring was very successful and owed so much to me! I died at the age of 63 in the year of 1836, but my cause of death has been unspecified.  Who am I?

#2: I was born September 14th, 1849 and died on February 27, 1936. I am a Russian physiologist who worked in animal psychology. I also formed the conditioned reflex. In 1906 I had a lecture printed in the journal of science. I used a method called classical conditioning to train dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell. Who am I?

#3:  I graduated from Howard University and then applied to Cornell University to receive my Ph.D. I was denied from Cornell University because I am an African American. As a result I received my degree from Columbia University. In 1934 I organized a protest against segregation. I conducted research on racial identity and self concept issues with African American children. My research was cited in the 1954 U.S Supreme Court’s landmark decision to segregate public schools. In 1971 I served as the APA’s first African American president. Who am I?

#4:  I was born on February 16th, 1822 in England. I never received a degree in Psychology, but I pursued a degree in mathematics. I was the first to use questionnariers, the debate of nature and nurture, word association test, and the twin studies. I am credited in meteorology and law enforcement. I discovered finger printing and further researched the effectiveness of prayer and the comparison of species. I am a cousin of Charles Darwin’s. I wrote the English Men of Science: Their Nature and Nurture. I also developed the correlation known as Pearsons “r.Who am I?

 #5:  I was born in 1856. I was the favorite child of my mother. I graduated summa cum laudae from secondary school and was already able to speak several languages. I then begin my studies at Vienna University.  Ispent a short time as a resident in neurology in a children’s ward in Berlin where I was also the director. I then returned to Vienna and with my partner Breuer set up a neuropsychiatry practice. I am said to make the idea of the conscious mind versus the unconscious mind famous, I also said that the unconscious is the source of our motivations. I also made famous the idea of the id, ego and superego. I also developed a set of developmental stages that were primarily sexually oriented. To the phallic stage I related a problem known as the Oedipal crisis. I am perhaps most known for psychoanalysis. I also moved to England before WWII  where not long after I died of mouth cancer.  Who Am I?

#6:   I was born in 1806 in London, England. My father was Who Am I Answer to #1 above, and he was a very rigorous tutor each and every day. For up to five hours each day, I was learning a variety of information. He tutored me in language, mathematics, history, and political economy. By the age of three I was able to read Plato, in original Greek. My early scholastic advancement continued throughout my life. Sadly, by the time I was 21, I was suffering from major depression. It took me awhile to recover because I felt like a ‘logical machine’ instead of a human. About four years after my breakdown, I fell in love with Harriet Taylor. The only problem was the fact that she was married and at this time there were no laws that would allow women to file for divorce. For twenty years, I yearned to be with her and she with me. Finally, after the husband died we were able to wed. I was overly happy for the seven years we were together before she passed. I longed for her until my death. Although I was heartbroken over her death, I published The Subjection of Women. This publication voiced some of my opinions about the ridiculous situations women have had to face, particularly with marriage, financial, and property rights. I also contributed to the new field of psychology. I disagreed with my father about human minds being a machine. Rather, I felt the mind is active in its association of ideas. I also introduced the idea that came to be known as creative synthesis. Although my childhood was rough and I was desperate for two decades to be with the woman I loved, I still was quite successful in my contributions to the future.  Who Am I?

#7:  I was born on August 2nd, 1893 in Garrison, NY. I had 5 siblings and my father who was a very famous psychologist and professor at Columbia University insisted that we be home schooled through high school. I was not able to learn as quickly as my siblings because I suffered from dyslexia. When I expressed an interest in attending college my father was not supportive because of my learning disability, he did not think that I was bright enough to attend college. Despite my fathers lack of emotional and financial support I got a job as a research assistant to pay my tuition while I attended the Sargent School of Physical Education. After that I went on to graduate school at Cornell University and received my M.A in 1925 in addition to that I attended Harvard University and received my Master of Education degree followed by a Doctorate in Education in 1927. Between 1936 and 1938 I was an instructor in mental testing for a nursery training school in Boston. My experience at the Harvard University and the knowledge that I gained the mental testing of infants and young children gave me the basis for my book The Measurement of Intelligence of Infants and Young Children written in 1940. It also enabled me to develop The Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale. I worked at the Lancaster Guidance Clinic from 1939 until I retired in 1963. In 1987 I had a stroke that made it impossible for me to continue living independently in my home. I died in April 1989 in Lititz, PA at the Moravian Manor home for the aged.   Who Am I?

#8:  I am the father of criminology. I am the founder of the Positivist School of Criminology.  I came up with the concept of atavism which is the view that criminals are devolved versions of “normal” humans. Criminals have strong physical characteristics of prehistoric ancestors (i.e. large lips and drooping foreheads). I also had the idea that there are three major forms of criminals: criminals, criminaloids, and insane criminals. There are also habitual criminals and political criminals.  I focused on scientific methodology for the identification of criminals and criminal behavior. I believed that women had the same intelligence level as children and this was the cause of their criminal behavior. One of my biggest critics was a man named Gabrielle Tarde. He challenged my views of atavism. Tarde challenged the measurements of my research and discarded my views on the physical appearances of criminals compared to non-criminals. Tarde also introduced societal problems as a cause of deviance. I spent years changing my views on criminology and in my later years I came to understand the importance of societal issues as a cause of criminal behavior.  Who Am I?

#9:  I was born 460 BC and I am from ancient Greece. I am the father of medicine and I created the foundation of medicine as a science. I believed that diseases came from natural causes. I was a strong believer in observation. I taught my students to observe the behavior of their patience to understand the illness and so that they can create an appropriate treatment for the disease. I have an oath named after me which cannot actually be accredited to me but it represents my principles. The oath sets the standards for the ethical conduct of physicians and doctors to this day. It was the first to come up with patient confidentiality.  Who Am I?

#10:  My question to everyone out there is, are there any real differences between primary and secondary qualities?  Ok well to get things started, I going to have to disagree with Locke, everything is secondary quality, not primary.  I come up with the concept of mentalism, which means that the knowledge we have gained has been from personal perceiving.  I also believe that we can never know the precise physical nature of objects because we experience it within ourselves.  Two of  philosophical works were later an influence oh psychology.  I also served as a bishop, which means that God is the permanent perceiver of everything.  Last but not least, a university in California was named after me. Who Am I?

#11:  As we all know I was a very important person in my time.  When I found out I was dying, I knew that my death would be an irreparable loss to the world.  Despite my financial and emotional problems, I’m a very brilliant man, but sometimes I would get these periods of dementia and I would act like an animal.  I swear I support woman all the way, but maybe marriage wasn’t one of my best idea.  However, one of my great ideas was Positivism, which focused on the study of objects that can only be observed.  It just so happened that positivism was a zeitgeist in Europe in the late 1800’s.  I also came up with the brilliant idea of materialism, which focused on the physical properties of the brain.  If you don’t know who I am by now, you should.  Who Am I?

#12:  I was born into a wealthy family.  I had many interest, including mathematics, physiology, physics, and philosophy.  I was rather late to rise due to my poor health, although that wouldn’t stop me from swordsmanship, dancing, and gambling.  I tried to figure out the mind-body problem, came up with the reflex action theory, and derived and innate ideas.  My respect for royalty and their demands eventually would cost me my life, and I would lose my mind after death.  If you would find it, please point it out to me, because it is impossible for me to do so.  Who Am I?

#13I was born on May 25th, 1860 in Easton, P.A. I had 5 children and one of them went on to become an influential person in psychology. I graduated from Lafayette College in Easton in 1880. After that I went to Germany and studied with Rudolf Hermann Lotze at the University of Gottingen and with psychologist Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig. I studied at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD from 1882-1883. In 1886 I received my Ph. D. from Leipzig. In 1888 I received a professorship in psychology, which was the first one ever offered at the University of Pennsylvania and this was where I established a laboratory and developed a series of mental measurement tests for college students. In 1891 I became professor and administrative head of psychology at Columbia University. In 1894 I confounded the Psychological Review and acquired the weekly journal Science that I edited from 1894-1944. I was also president of the American Psychological Association of University Professors. In 1917 I was dismissed from Columbia University for publicly criticizing the World War 1 draft. In 1921 I founded the Psychological Corporation for the purpose of making research in applied psychology available to industry business. I died on January 20th, 1944Who Am I?

 

#14: I was born in Baden, Germany on August 16, 1832. I came from a very academic lineage, with my ancestors making contributions in almost every field. My grades early on were poor, which upset my father. I pursued my university studies in the field of medicine at Tübingen, Heidelberg, and Berlin; however, I was more interested in the scientific aspect than the medical aspect of my studies. I decided that I did not like medicine so I changed my major to physiology. In 1864, I was appointed assistant professor at Heidelberg, where I started a course called physiological psychology – the first course of its kind in the world. I constantly published, but my masterpiece was The Principles of Physiological Psychology, published in 1873 and 1874. In this publication I founded the new field of psychology as a laboratory science. I carefully outlined what psychology was to study and the methods that were to be used to conduct research in the field. I became a professor of philosophy at the University of Leipzig in 1875 and continued to work there for 45 years. It is here that I founded the first lab of psychology and founded psychology’s first journal, Psychological Studies. My school of thought focused on studying conscious experience that can be studied by reducing it down to its elementary components. I advocated the use of introspection, or the examination of one’s own mental state, to study conscious experience. In my opinion, psychological research should be centered on studying immediate experience rather than mediate experience. I was a well liked professor and many students flocked to me to learn my methods of psychology. I died in 1920. Who Am I?

#15
: I was born in Wittenberg, Germany in 1795. I received my doctorate from the University of Leipzig in 1815, and I went on to teach physiology and anatomy there until my retirement. I was extremely interested in doing research with the senses, and I applied my intrigue for the senses to my work with psychology. In doing my work in physiology, I was always very careful to use experimental methods, and I used the same methods to conduct research in psychology. One of my important contributions to psychology was the discovery of the two-point threshold; this is the distance that two separate points must be apart in order to be identified by a person as two separate points. My most important contribution to psychology was my development of psychology’s first quantitative law, just noticeable difference (JND). Just noticeable difference is the smallest difference in weights that can be detected (any object). My research solidified the need for scientific research in the new field of psychology. I died in 1878.  Who Am I?

#16
:  I was born on April 21, on Good Friday in 1848 in Bavaria, Germany. As a result of my being born into a medical family, I was exposed to science very early on; however, I did not initially take a liking to science and was more interested in music. I did not become interested in science until I attended the University of Würzburg, where I became exposed to Brentano’s work. Although I began working with psychology, I never lost my interest in music and I published a work entitled Psychology of the Tone. After I began doing work with the new field of psychology, I was awarded an appointment at the University of Berlin, the most prestigious professorship in German Psychology. I am considered Wilhelm Wundt’s biggest adversary, as I trained two of the founders of Gestalt psychology,Wolfgang Köhler and Kurt Koffka. Gestalt psychology is the school of thought that opposed Wundt’s views. I was not in agreement with Wundt’s view of introspection and instead used the method of phenomenology, which does not attempt to reduce experience down into elements, but rather focuses on unbiased immediate experience just as it occurs. Additionally, I founded the Berlin Association for Child Psychology. I died in 1936. Who Am I?

#17:
I was born in Baden, Germany on March 9, 1758 to Roman Catholic merchant parents.  I was the sixth of ten children.  Although my Uncle was a priest, who had intended on teaching me about the priesthood, my intentions were to study medicine.  I studied medicine in Vienna, and focused on brain mapping.  My three main passions in life were “science, gardening, and women.”  I married in 1790 to Miss Leisler, and although we were married I had many mistresses (which lead to an unpleasant marriage).  After my wife died, I married for a second time in 1825 to Marie Anne Barbe. As a physician, I was interested in mental illness; therefore, I dissected the brains of deceased animals and humans.  My most important professional accomplishment was my work that confirmed the existence of both white and gray matter in the brain, the nerve fibers connecting each side of the brain to the opposite side of the spinal cord, and the fibers connecting both halves of the brain.  After my research in brain mapping, I looked for answers concerning intelligent behavior with the size and shape of the brain.  I called this, Cranioscopy (later called Phrenology).  Because of this movement, I was labeled a fraud, and was no longer respected by my colleagues.  My impact on the field of Psychology was that I offered revolutionary concepts on brain localization.  I later died in Paris on August 22, 1828 of a fatal stroke.  Who Am I?

#18I was born in 1711. I studied law in Scotland but did not graduate, then I tried business and decided I didn’t like that either. Next I studied philosophy and moved to England to become famous as a writer. One of my major contributions to psychology was when I wrote A Treatise of Human Nature (1739). I supported John Locke’s concept of simple ideas combine to make complex ideas. I questioned Berkley’s idea of permanent perceiver, and suggested that we have no way of known what exists outside our minds. I also contributed two laws of association: Resemblance and Contiguity. The laws meant that ideas that are similar and contiguous are more likely to be associated.  Who Am I?

 

#19I was born in 1890. I studied at John Hopkins, and was a student of Watson. Although I accepted Watson’s theories, I also decided to come up with my own ideas in behavioral psychology. I firmly believe in the mechanistic concept of psychology, even as a boy mechanic toys intrigued me and I notice that people have a lot in common with machines.  Two principles I created were: Law of mass association and Equipotentiality. When researching sensory and motor centers in the brain I ended up questioning Watson’s concept of simple point to point connections in reflexes. My findings were hard for Watson to accept because it showed the brain had a very significant role in learning. My work in psychology reinforced the importance of objective methods in psychological research.  Who Am I?        
 
#20:
I am an English biologist who lived in the 1800’s. My father and my grandfather were doctors, so I was expected to study medicine, although I hated it. I was always interested in natural history. My love for natural history grew on my 5 year voyage to South America on the HMS Beagle. I was fascinated by the species origin and their change throughout their generations. Although I came back from my voyage in 1836, I did not publish my first book On the Origin of Species was published until 1859 when I was 50 years old. I published my book because I had been putting years into my work, but somebody else had come up with the same thing. I waited that long because I wanted to extend my knowledge and write a longer, more in depth book.  I moved to the outskirts of London, from which I never moved, due to my poor health. I died in April of 1882, not before having come up with the great theories of Evolution and Natural Selection. A lot of people were against my theories because they thought they were trying to disprove religious beliefs. Who Am I?

#21
: I was very multifaceted in my days: I was a physician, naturalist, artist, psychologist, philosopher, religious thinker, psychic reader, drug experimenter, writer, lecturer and professor. I really did not feel that much of a passion for any of the things that I did, although I was a very influential man. In 1902 I published a book called “The Varieties of Religious Experience” since I was always trying to find spiritual meaning in my life. My father wanted my siblings and me to have a great education, so he sent us to Europe, where I became familiar with a few languages and cultures. I traveled to the Amazon, but had to come home because I got sick. After some time, I did not like psychology very much, but I made a huge contribution by inspiring the movement of functionalism & writing The Principles of Psychology. Who Am I?



 

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